|TITLE:||INFLUENCE OF EXPERIENCE LEVEL ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING INTERACTIVE VIDEO GAMING|
|PRINCIPLE INVESTIGATOR:||KRAFT, JUSTIN|
|OTHER INVESTIGATORS:||DR. WILLIAM RUSSELLRNAMANDA JACKSON (STUDENT)RNNATHAN CLARK (STUDENT)|
File Created: April 8, 2013|
Department Chair Action Date: April 8, 2013
Current Status: Expedited Approval Granted
Action Date: April 8, 2013
Approval Expiration Date: April 8, 2014
|Confidentiality||Data are not linked to individuals|
STATEMENT OF PURPOSEIntroduction Video games, are pervasive and are likely to have a substantial leisure-time impact in the future, as evidenced by recent sales data which showed Americans purchased $21.33 billion worth of video game systems, software, and accessories in 2008 (NPD Group, 2009). Yet, while the Surgeon General has cited ‘screen time’ activities as culprits to decreased physical activity (USDHHS, 2004), a paradoxical development in the video game industry has been the increased popularity of interactive, movement-based video games, or ‘exergames’. These games include popular applications such as Dance Dance Revolution (DDR), X-box Kinect, Xavix, Eye-Toy, Wii, Fit and Game Bikes. The games can be interfaced with home-version video game consoles, are widely available, and directly interface users’ bodily movements to control video game action. Research indicates these applications may be feasible alternatives to more traditional physical activity (Maddison, Mhurhcu, Jull, et al., 2007; Unnithan, Houser, & Fernall, 2006; Warburton, Brendin, Horita et al., 2007) and result in sufficient intensities (Tan, Aziz, Chua, & Teh, 2002; Sell, Lillie, & Taylor, 2008; Unnithan, Houser, & Fernall, 2006) and caloric expenditures (Lanningham-Foster et al., 2006; Maddison, et al., 2007) capable of providing certain physiological benefits. One focus has been whether exergames are capable of providing energy expenditure similar to traditional physical activity, and recent evidence supports that some applications are capable of providing energy expenditures similar to moderate-intensity walking and running (Lanningham-Foster et al., 2006; Maddison, et al., 2007) and are capable of meeting minimal heart rate intensity recommendations for developing aerobic fitness (Tan, Aziz, Chua, & Teh, 2002; Unnithan, Houser, & Fernall, 2006). More recently, exergames have been compared to traditional exercise on heart rate and perceived exertion (Kraft et al., 2011) as well as affective measures (Russell et al., 2010) at self-selected intensities. Exergames have been found to elicit extended proportions of time within target heart range for aerobic benefits similar to traditional exercise (Kraft et al., 2011) as well as providing similar acute psychological benefits to traditional exercise (Russell et al., 2010). Yet while research has found evidence for the utility of exergames to increase physical activity, questions regarding the health contributions of these applications still remain. Energy expenditure from exergames has been examined, yet less is known regarding how the energy expenditure of such applications translates to daily physical activity requirements(Tudor-Locke & Basset, 2004), as measured by daily calories burned or accumulated step counts. Additionally, physical activity may be specific to the gaming mode and influenced by the muscle mass involved in the activity (Graves et al., 2008; Ridley & Olds, 2001) and pedometers may not adequately assess physical activity requiring primarily upper body motion. As such, recent research (Russell et al., 2013) has indicated the need to evaluate movement patterns through the use of accelerometers as well as pedometers in order to assess the viability of exergames to contribute to physical activity guidelines. In addition, since physiological (perceived exertion, HR response, step counts) and psychological (mood) responses to traditional exercise modes vary as a function of experience level (Steptoe, Kearsley, & Walters, 1993; Thayer, Newman, & McClain, 1994), video game experience may also act as a mediating variable for the relationship between exergame participation and possible physiological and psychological benefits from exergaming. For example, Sell et al (2008) examined whether participant’s exergaming experience influenced energy expenditure and found that experienced participants showed significantly higher HR, RPE, RER, VO2, exercise intensity and step counts within 30 minutes of exergame activity. In addition, Russell et al., (2013) further found differences in peak HR between experienced and inexperienced players during an interactive boxing game. This led researchers to conclude that this variable warrants further investigation. Statement of Purpose The purposes of the following study will be to: (1) compare heart rate, perceived exertion, and step counts on a popular interactive video game, across users’ exergame experience (2) examine the movement pattern (lower body, upper body, whole body) elicited by interactive video gaming and quantify physical activity through the use of both pedometers and accelerometers (3) compare short-term psychological changes resulting from participation in a popular interactive video game, across users’ exergame experience. (4) examine whether there is a relationship between the magnitude of physiological response to exergames and resultant affective changes occurring from exergame activity. Research Questions: (1) Does the exergame users’ experience level influence physiological response obtained from participation in an acute bout of exergaming at self-selected intensity? (2) Can the current interactive video game be utilized to meet physical activity guidelines (provide exercise above the minimal target HR necessary for improvements in cardiovascular fitness and contribute step recommendations). (3) What is the accumulated step count from an acute bout of exergaming at a self-selected intensity? (4) Does interactive video gaming elicit primarily localized body movement or movement of the entire body? (5) Does the exergame users’ experience level influence psychological outcomes obtained from participation in an acute bout of exergaming at self-selected intensity? (6) Is there a relationship between the amount of short-term physiological response and short-term psychological outcomes obtained from acute bouts of exergaming?
STATEMENT OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGYStatement of Research Methodology Participants for this project will be a target sample of approximately 20 to 40 college age volunteers. All potential participants will be screened using the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). Upon consent, participants will undergo a preliminary 60 minute (min) familiarization session. Participants will rest quietly in the lab in order to obtain a resting HR. During this time participants will be familiarized with the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) and with using Borg’s modified 10 point rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale (Robertson, 2004) to assess psychophysiological perceptions of activity. Participants will have their resting heart rate assessed so individualized target heart rates can be calculated for experimental sessions and be measured for descriptive statistics (height, weight, percent body fat, BMI). Participants will complete 15 min of walking at a self-selected intensity in an indoor gymnasium. Participants will wear a HR monitor, accelerometer at the waist and pedometer on the ankle during this walking exercise. This exercise is being performed in order to allow for a direct comparison between steps and HR obtained during interactive video gaming and during traditional walking exercise. Participants will complete the PANAS 5 min prior to walking and at 5 and 15 min post walking. Session RPE and recovery HR will additionally be recorded 15 min post walking and participants will rate their experience according to the enjoyment scale. Finally, participants will be introduced to game. They will perform 5 min of game play which will be accompanied by instruction in gaming techniques and gaming strategies. The design for the proposed project will entail a within subjects repeated measures design. On separate days, participants will complete one experimental trial in an inexperienced gaming condition (prior to game practice) and one experimental trial in the experienced gaming condition. The inexperienced gaming condition experimental trial will consist of having participants perform 15 min of game play. In order to standardize the operational definition of video game experience, participants will complete an additional 2 hours of supervised game play prior to performing the high experience experimental trial in which participants will complete 15 min of interactive game play. Experimental Trials Upon arriving at the laboratory, participants will be fitted with a heart rate monitor (Polar, Port Washington, NY, Polar, Inc.) so that resting and exercise heart rate can be monitored. Participants will additionally wear StepWatch 3 Step Activity Monitor (Orthocare Innovations ) step counter on each ankle, so that step counts during the session can be measured. An Actigraph GX3+ accelerometer will be worn at the waist and on each wrist to monitor motion which may be localized to the upper body. Participants will then rest quietly in the lab for 10 min. At five minutes pre-session participants will complete the PANAS. During experimental sessions, the heart rate monitor will record HR and RPE will be recorded every three min. Following each experimental trial, participants will engage in five min of quiet rest after which they will be assessed on post-session positive and negative affect. Session RPE, recovery HR and 15-min post session affect will be recorded 15 min after the end of each session. Session RPE will be obtained by asking the question, “Overall, how hard did your exercise session feel?”. This measure will provide a global subjective estimate of the difficulty of the entire exercise bout. Participants will additionally complete an enjoyment scale in which they will estimate their exercise session enjoyment by placing a mark on a 100mm line. Participants will be asked to refrain from exercise and from consuming caffeine prior to the exercise session on the day of experimental trials as caffeine can affect both HR and RPE.
ANTICIPATED RISKS AND BENEFITSAnticipated Risks and Benefits Participants within the proposed project will be required to exercise at a self-selected intensity for 15 min on two separate occasions. In addition, participants will complete 15 min of walking exercise and an additional 2 hours of interactive video game play which will involve moderate intensity exercise prior to completion of the “experienced” condition experimental trial. Heart rates will be monitored during experimental sessions using heart rate monitors and step counts will be assessed using step counters and accelerometers. Participants will be selected based on their health history such that they have no history of exercise-related injuries and are in good health (as assessed by the PAR-Q). In addition, participants will be instructed to stop if they do not feel well and will be monitored at all times during their activity sessions. Since participants will be self-selecting their intensity, this further ensures that intensities will not exceed the competence level of the participant.
SUBJECT SELECTIONA convenience sample of approximately 20 to 40 healthy college-age volunteers will be selected for this study.
CONFIDENTIALITYData will be monitored only by the investigators of the research. Hard copies of waiver forms and data collection sheets will be kept in a locked filing cabinet. Collected data will be entered and stored on computers that are only accessible to these individuals. Participant’s names will not be released during, or after the completion of research. Only aggregate data will be published.
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