Poster Session #1 12:30 - 1:40 Fine Arts Lobby Poster Session #2 2:00 - 3:10 Fine Arts Lobby Public Presentation 3:30 - 5:00 Little Theater, LRC 102 Dr. Mary Cook, Director of Biobehavioral Research Midwest Research Institute "Reversal Theory and Smoking Cessation: A Detective Story"
BARTULICA, Nick. Troubleshooting PCR MWSC Biology Department
The polymerase chain reaction is the latest technology
used in molecular biology to amplify DNA. These techniques are
used in everything from identifying unknown bacteria's to criminal
trials. Though the theory behind this technology can be understood
even by the lay person making it actually work may be difficult
even for the most experienced researchers. Many problems face
scientists today ranging from simple micropipetting techniques
to selecting proper primers. The following will illustrate various
problems encountered by this researcher and the steps taken to
overcome these problems.
BOSLER, Brandi. Substance Abuse in Nursing: How Student Nurses feel. MWSC Nursing Department
It has been shown that nurses are 50% more likely
than any other population to become addicted to some sort of substance.
It has also been shown that other nurses attitudes toward those
nurses with substance abuse may affect whether they get help or
not. On November 19 I will be using a series of questions on
a senior nursing class to see exactly how they feel about substance
abuse and nurses who suffer from it. There are approx. 25-35
questions with the answer ranging from strongly agree to strongly
disagree. I hope to use this study to aid the nursing dept. in
finding out if they are teaching the students what they need to
know about substance abuse in our profession. I will also be
presenting other researchers findings to the class to tell them
about substance abuse in nurses and why these nurses need help
BYOUS, Shanon. The Diversity of Smaller Nocturnal Insects in an Urban Habitat Compared to a Rural Habitat. MWSC Biology Department
An experiment was conducted to compare the abundance
and diversity of small nocturnal insects in an urban habitat with
a rural habitat. A similar comparison was also made in the rural
setting of a cultured prairie with a forest. Nine CDC traps were
used on two consecutive nights. Three traps were placed in an
urban setting and six traps were placed in a rural setting (three
in the forest and three in the cultured prairie). It is expected
that the rural habitat has the greater abundance and diversity
of insects, and also that the forest has a greater diversity compared
to the cultured prairie.
CHANEY, Gary; BUHLINGER, Shelly,; BOSLER, Brandi. The Effects of Music Relaxation Therapy on Blood Pressures of Mentally Ill and Mentally Retarded Adults. MWSC Nursing Department
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness
of music relaxation therapy on blood pressures of chronically
mentally ill and mentally retarded adults. The objective of the
study was to determine if the blood pressure can be lowered by
exposure to music relaxation therapy. Subjects (n=26) included
mentally ill and mentally retarded adults (54% male, 46% female)
who attended a day program at a community resocialization and
recreation non-health care facility. Most subjects were Caucasian
(81%) with 19% African American. The average age was 44. All
volunteers were exposed to a short educational program on blood
pressure and 10 minutes of selected music, with pre- and post-testing
of the blood pressures. Paired sample t-tests were used to analyze
differences between systolic and diastolic blood pressures before
and after the music relaxation therapy. Subjects post-systolic
blood pressure (p<.004) and post-diastolic blood pressure (p<.022)
were significantly lower than the pre-systolic and pre-diastolic
blood pressures. Overall, the blood pressure changed significantly.
The findings suggest that nurses need to continue to be involved
in non-healthcare facilities to educate the mentally ill and mentally
retarded adults about health promotion and disease prevention
and the importance of music relaxation as one intervention to
decrease blood pressure.
CORZINE, Diana. Depression and Missouri Western Students. MWSC Psychology Department
Major depressive disorder, which is the most serious
category of depression, afflicts 15% of the U.S. patient population
sometime in their lives (Rakow, 1995). No one is sure of the
etiology--it could be a chemical imbalance, a product of genetics,
a combination, or something else entirely. Because of this lack
of exact etiological information, there are many explanatory theories.
From a cognitive psychology point of view, there are three concepts
which explain depression--the cognitive triad, schemas, and faulty
information processing (Beck, 1979). The purpose of this study
is to compare participants' levels of depression before and after
taking an exam and to compare levels of depression in male and
female participants. I collected data from 62 students (17 male
and 45 female) in psychology and business classes at Missouri
Western State College in St. Joseph, Missouri, a small city in
the northwestern section of the state. The 16-item paper and pencil
scale described below was constructed to measure the existence
of depression in the participants of this study. I administered
the questionnaire to the students twice--once the class period
before an exam and once the class period after taking the exam
but before it was returned. After recording all the data from
the participants, an independent groups t test will be conducted.
I expect there will be a difference in the participants' pre-
and post-exam scores when compared. And, I expect there will
be a difference in the male and female participants' scores.
EGGERS, David M. Why Adolescents are Drinking. MWSC Psychology Department.
Surveys were handed out to college students to find
why adolescents are drinking, knowing all the dangers that come
with alcohol consumption. To 'fit in' and to be part of the crowd
should be a predominant factor. Parents should also play an
active role in how much their adolescents consume. Where the
adolescents lives, on-campus or off-campus, and whether they belong
to a fraternity or sorority could also be an influential factor.
The only way to stop this alcohol abuse is to find out why these
adolescents are drinking and also starting at such a young age.
FISHER, Robin. Levels of depression. MWSC Psychology Department
The differences in levels of depression between religious
and non-religious professionals were investigated in this study.
Other studies have shown that professionals in the religious
field tend to experience excessive amounts of stress that leads
to depression. The results of these studies may be directly related
to the strict beliefs that these professionals uphold. The purpose
of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in
levels of depression between the religious and non-religious fields.
The non-religious group will derive from St. Joseph, Missouri,
while the religious subjects will mainly be located in southern
California. A depression scale will be utilized to determine
the difference between the two groups. An independent t test
will be used to compare the levels of depression between the groups.
I expect to find a significant difference between these two groups.
These results and further studies could aid in creating a less
stressful working atmosphere for those chosen to work in the ministry.
FRITZ, Tanya. Project CLEAN: Hygiene in Public Schools. MWSC Nursing Department
Project C.L.E.A.N. is curriculum developed to teach
health and hygiene to elementary students, grades 1-6. The goal
of this research project was to develop age-appropriate pretests
and posttests to accurately measure the amount of learning taking
place. Due to time restraints age-appropriate tests were developed
for the second and fifth grades only. The tests were given in
two local elementary schools. A paired t-test was used to evaluate
the results with a 0.05 significance level. Using 32 matched
pretest and posttest scores in the second grade, the upper-tail
probability was not found to be statistically significant. 46
paired results were used in the fifth grade and a statistical
significance was found.
GULLEDGE, Jerry. Victim Visibility as an Inhibitor of Horn Honking Aggression in Traffic. MWSC Psychology Department.
In previous studies, anonymity has been found to
increase aggressive responses, whereas victim visibility has produced
the opposite effect. In the present study, sixty random drivers
will be delayed at a green stoplight in a small Midwestern city.
Half will be behind a convertible with the top down; the other
half will be behind the same vehicle with the top up, defining
anonymity. The latency periods to the first honk will be recorded
and then analyzed using an independent groups t-test. I expect
to find a statistically significant increase in the latency period
for the visible condition.
HALLER, Nancy P. Effects of Glucose on Prospective and Retrospective Memory in the Elderly, MWSC Psychology Department.
There is growing evidence that deficiencies in glucose
regulation and utilization may be responsible for age-related
declines in learning and memory. Several recent studies have found
that peripheral glucose administration enhances memory in aged
animals and humans. However, all of these studies that have found
memory-enhancing effects of glucose have used retrospective memory
tasks such as paragraph recall or word list. A recent study by
Tombaugh (1995)has found a relationship between retrospective
and prospective memory, and that prospective memory also declines
with aging. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence
of glucose on prospective memory. Using a counter balanced double-blind
repeated measures design,12 healthy elderly adults (60+yrs)were
tested following ingestion of a beverage sweetened with glucose
(50g) or with saccharin (23.7mg).Each participant was tested twice,
one week apart, with each of the beverages and two alternative
versions of the memory battery in which a series of prospective
memory tasks had been embedded.
MAST, Laura A. Impression Formation: Do Facial Features or Body Types have the Greatest Influence on First Impressions? MWSC Psychology Department.
Previous studies in this area have looked at head,
head and shoulders, or somatotypes only and their effect on impression
formation. However, they have not looked at both head (face)
and body together to see if they are equally considered or if
one has a greater effect than the other. This study will address
both facial features and body types in order to determine whether
one is more predominant than the other for impression formation.
Additionally, it will address which has a greater influence on
males and which has a greater influence on females. The effects
that appearances have on interpersonal issues will also be explored.
Approximately 250 introductory psychology students at Missouri
Western State College will participate in the study. They will
be presented with one of two sets of photos. In each set, there
are two males and two females photographed separately. Each male
will be of approximately the same height but have a different
somatotype. The same will hold true for the females photographed.
Photo Set A, the control condition, will include the original
photos of each male and female. Photo Set B, the experimental
condition, will include the same photo subjects, however, their
heads will be superimposed onto the opposite somatotype (ie.,
female head A on female body B, and vice versa). As a dependent
measure, a personality index will be included for each of the
photos. The packets will be given randomly to the participants.
The sex of the person photographed, their body type and their
facial features will be the primary considerations for final analysis.
Therefore, a 2x2x2 analysis of variance will be used to analyze
O'BRIEN, Michael. Peptide Mapping MWSC Biology Department
Peptide mapping is a procedure to differentiate between
two or more proteins with an enzyme. The enzyme will cut the
different proteins at various locations. This will give specific
results based on the protein structure. This procedure can be
used to determine the effects of a specific protein has. In this
experiment trypsin and papain was used on various albumins. The
results after digestion were then separated by gel electrophoresis.
Trypsin did not digest any of the various albumins while papain
did show some digestion ability. From the results papain can
be used to help show differences within a phylum or class of organisms.
OTTO, Janet M. The Influence Of Restrained Vs. Unrestrained Eating On Choice of Film to Watch. MWSC Psychology Department.
Restrained eaters chronically restrict their food
intake to avoid becoming fat but, can temporarily lose control
when experiencing a strong negative emotion. Much research has
been done exposing subjects to horror films to induce a negative
emotional state, thus causing a disinhibitory effect on restrained
eating. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or
not the restrained eater avoids situations that may cause her
to lose control of her eating. Subjects are from an introductory
psychology course at Missouri Western State College, all female,
18-25 years, and of normal weight. Participants are categorized
as restrained or unrestrained eaters using the restrained eating
scale. Subjects are then asked if they would prefer to watch
a horror movie or a documentary. Half of the subjects will have
food available in the room. Although the subjects will not actually
watch the movie, their choice should be influenced by the presence
or absence of food if they are restrained eaters.
PRIDDY, Timothy S. Cloning of satellite fragments from mealworm genomic DNA MWSC Biology Department
Molecular cloning is a laboratory method using a
colony of yeast or bacteria to successively amplify genes or desired
fragments of DNA. This experiment utilizes Escherichia coli to
clone satellite fragments from mealworm genomic DNA that have
been ligated into a plasmid and then taken into the competent
E. coli cells. Once the plasmid is taken into a bacterial cell
it will be reproduced and passed on to daughter cells as if it
were part of the bacterial genome itself. The isolation of the
fragments from the genomic DNA is achieved with the use of restriction
endonucleases which cleave the DNA at specific sequences producing
a high concentration of these repetitive satellite fragments.
Once these are isolated from an agarose gel, the plasmid is restricted
with an enzyme producing complementary ends that allow the satellite
fragments to be ligated into the plasmid when exposed to a DNA
ligase enzyme. The DNA can be taken from the colonies and redigested
to yield the satellite fragments and compared to the original
digestion to illustrate cloning has been accomplished. The use
of this particular cloning project is not to introduce a functional
gene or product, but may be used in future lab exercises as an
example or a control in association with other cloning experiments
that do produce functional products.
RITTMAN, Andrea. Academic Dishonesty Among College Honors Students. MWSC Psychology Department.
Academic dishonesty is a growing problem for higher
education. Studies report up to 60% of college students admit
to cheating on at least one exam. Individuals with a high level
of intelligence are likely to have a high level of moral development
creating the assumption that intelligent students would be less
likely to cheat. The purpose of this study is to identify a correlation
between honors and non-honors students in their views and behavior
regarding academic dishonesty. A cheating survey was used to
assess general attitudes towards cheating, personal attitudes,
and incidents of cheating among college students. I expect results
to indicate no significant difference between the two classifications
of students. Further research concerning definitions of academic
dishonesty among this sample may be necessary for a thorough analysis.
SHOOTS, Erin, The Effects of Stereotypes and Situational Factors on Children's Favorite and Preferred Colors. MWSC Psychology Department.
The study is designed to test the effects of stereotypical
and situational influences on color preferences of preschool aged
children and to study favorite colors of preschool aged children
as related to stereotypical color preference. Fifty children,
ranging in age from three to five, from the Headstart program,
will be participants. Children participating will be randomly
assigned into one of four testing conditions. Conditions will
each consist of a story and illustration depicting a relationship
between gender and color, specifically, male/blue, male/pink,
female/blue and female/pink. After being asked their favorite
color, children will be asked to choose color preference from
pink, blue or white colored paper squares for themselves and a
child of the opposite sex. After being read one story and shown
corresponding illustration, children will again be asked to choose
color preference for themselves and a child of the opposite sex
from the paper squares. Color preferences will be based on a
2x4x2 factorial design analyzing sex of subject, condition and
whether choosing color preference for themselves or others. I
expect to find that children's favorite colors, with respect to
gender, will differ. Male children will choose a non-traditional
color as their favorite and female children will choose a traditional
color. I also predict that color preference will not be salient
in the children. Although they will probably base their preference
and the preference of others on traditional stereotypical colors
prior to testing and after testing in the conditions where gender
and color are not traditionally stereotyped, children will probably
change their preference to relate to the condition.
SLOAN, Kelly. A Survey of Faculty Web Pages. MWSC Computer Science Department.
Approximately 600 faculty home pages were examined
at various U. S. colleges and universities. Data was collected
on several features of each page. Tabulations included the type
of template use, links to other pages, and the amount of information
on courses, office , the faculty member, the faculty member's
body of knowledge, and the faculty member's personal interests.
Subjective ratings were also made about the usefulness of the
page as a teaching and research tool. The display includes tabulation
of the statistics, a list of some interesting faculty pages, and
observations about style guidelines for the development of faculty
STROTHER, Todd. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of the Herbicide Alachlor. MWSC Chemistry Department.
Alachlor, a pre-emergent herbicide found in soils,
is commonly extracted using methylene chloride. Environmental
concerns about methylene chloride have galvanized a search for
replacement methods. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) using
carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative to methylene
chloride extractions. Carbon dioxide is considerably less harmful
and does not pose the disposal problems of chlorinated solvents.
A brief overview of supercritical fluids, SFE, and SFE equipment
will be presented. Previous work extracting alachlor from soils
with SFE and subsequent analysis using high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) or enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA)
has been shown to have limited use due to interference of co-eluting
compounds. The current research explores SFE in conjunction with
analysis using GC/MS. Various parameters of extraction are explored
and the results are reported. Data suggest that SFE is nearly
as efficient as methylene chloride in extracting alachlor from
soils. While analysis with GC/MS does not show interference with
co-eluting compounds there is considerable loss of alachlor during
preparation. Loss of alachlor is traced to solvent evaporation
using a dry nitrogen stream. Improvements to limit the loss due
to solvent evaporation will be suggested for future analysis.
TOMES, Kenneth. Determination of Herbicides and Pesticides in River Run-off Water in Northwest Missouri. MWSC Chemistry Department.
This research project was a continuation of a project started in the summer of 1995 by two other students along with Dr. Lambing. This topic of research was chosen because of the potential health problems that could result from contamination of drinking water from organic compounds like herbicides and pesticides. The first few weeks of the summer were spent trying to improve the already developed technique of extracting water samples with diethyl ether so that analysis could be carried out. By varying the quantity of solvent used and the number of extractions carried out on a sample, the technique was improved considerably over what had previously been done. Once the technique was solidified, water samples were collected from area rivers for analysis. Each of these samples were extracted with ether and then analyzed using a gas chromatography / mass spectrometer. A gas chromatography / mass spectrometer is an instrument that is largely used to analyze unknown compounds. Although the water samples did not show any detectable contamination of herbicides or pesticides, they did show considerable contamination from other large organic molecules that could possibly lead to health ramifications to rural citizens in this community.
ALLISON, Jay. An In depth Look At Edward Thorndike. MWSC Psychology Department.
This is a historical look at the work that Edward
Thorndike conducted in the area of animal learning. It will be
taken into consideration how his background, education, and love
of psychology led to his research in this area. Another thing
that will be examined is how other schools of psychology, particularly
the ideas and theories of the Gestalt school of psychology, viewed
Thorndikes research. He conducted a number of experiments with
chickens, cats, rats, and monkeys in order to determine how the
act of learning took place. Thorndike also looked at different
variables that affected the way learning took place in animals.
Edward Thorndike was a very interesting character in the history
of psychology, and the work he did impacted psychology and the
area of animal behavior for ever.
DAVIES, Scott. Hugo Munsterberg. MWSC Psychology Department.
This historical paper examines the methods and theoretical
basis of Hugo Munsterberg's industrial psychology. His eclectic
theory for applying experimental psychology to the practical problems
of American industry in a wholistic fashion came from synthesizing
the German structural psychology of Wundt with the modern American
psychology of James.These forces played a powerful role in shaping
Munsterberg into the man who came along at the right time to bring
psychology out of the classroom and into the factory. In his 1913
book: Psychology and Industrial Efficiency, he was the first "to
sketch the outlines of a new science which is to mediate between
the modern laboratory psychology and the problems of economics"(p.3).
In this book he outlined his comprehensive model for industrial
psychology by first identifying the mental qualities of the best
worker for a particular task, then he describes under what mental
conditions the task will be performed most efficiently, and finally,
he explains how business can best use psychology to gain in economic
efficiency. The theoretical basis upon which he determined this
outline and the methods of psychotechnics which he employed in
his testing of it are explored in this paper.
EGGERS, David. The history of hypnosis. MWSC Psychology Department.
The word hypnosis has only been around for about
150 years however, practices of hypnosis have been around since
the early Oriental people, who associated it with religious and
mystical purposes. Hypnosis has gone through many changes from
Mesmer's magnetism to Freud's pressure technique through today
as we use it for pleasure and judicial purposes. For centuries,
hypnosis was thought to heal the sick, repress old facts that
have been suppressed and today used to bring out the truth when
one is lying. This paper will follow the beginning of hypnosis
and what it was used for, to the present day use.
FAULKNER, Kevin. Wilhelm Wundt MWSC Psychology Department
One of the greatest events in Psychological history
was the development of experimental psychology. The introduction
of empirical methods along with special methodology to the public,
changed psychology for ever. Wilhelm Wundt is responsible for
this change by taking the important contributions of Weber, Fechner,
and Hemholtz who together had already established many of the
methodological tools which Wundt used to put together and form
the first experimental lab at Leipzig from. Wilhelm Wundts life
events and activities that lead to the formation of the new psychology
developed at Leipzig will be discussed in this historical paper.
GULLEDGE, Jerry B. Clinical Psychology: Its Antecedents and Growth During
the First Twenty-five Years. MWSC Psychology Department.
Clinical psychology was founded by Lightner Witner
at the University of Pennsylvania in 1896 when he began the first
clinic for the application of psychological principles to individual
patients. However, there were certain historical antecedents
that provided a Zeitgeist favorable to the growth and development
of this new profession. These were the functional approach in
psychology, psychometrics, the dynamic approach in psychiatry,
and the mental-hygiene movement. By the end of World War I, clinical
psychology had recognized name and journal, had expanded its scope
of treatment, and had all the typical problems inherent in a new
HALLER, Nancy. B.F. Skinner: Misconceptins or denial or reality. MWSC Psychology Department.
B.F. Skinner devoted 63 years of his life to the
study of behaviorism. His contributions to the field are immense;
twelve major books, numerous books and a multivolume autobiography.
In 1970 he was named as among the "100 most important people
in the world" (Robinson, 1970). Yet, despite all of the
achievements and peer difference, Skinner was then, and is still,
a controversial research scientists. In September, 1971, Time
magazine featured Skinner on the cover with the headline "B.F.
Skinner Says We Can't Afford Freedom", in response to his
newly published book Beyond freedom and dignity. The public's
response to it, combined with the response of an earlier published
book Walden two, laid the foundation for the misunderstandings
of Skinner's behaviorism.
HECKMAN, Geoff, Alexander Bain. MWSC Psychology Department.
Alexander Bain has been called the first real psychologist
and the greatest psychologist of his time. This is mostly due
to the contributions Bain has made to psychology. Some of these
contributions are; starting the journal Mind, doing work with
voluntary action, and writing two books. In one of his books,
The Senses and the Intellect, Bain shows why he is a great psychologist
by doing work with how we remember material and the associations
that we make to do so.
HUNT, Teresa. Leta Setter Hollingworth: Woman of Distinction MWSC Psychology Department
A paper on Leta Setter Hollingworth, who was a notable
pioneer woman in Psychology. Throughout her career, she contributed
many literary works on educational psychology, and had an influence
on the fields of Clinical, Social, and Child Psychology; although
she is perhaps best known for her research on intellectually gifted
children. A truly gifted woman herself, her achievements in life
were quite remarkable, particularly when consideration is given
to the challenges faced by the women of her time. She graduated
in 1906 with highest honors from the University of Nebraska.
She went on to receive a M.A. and a Ph.D. from Columbia University,
where she became the first full Professor of Education in Psychology
at the Teachers College. In 1937, she was awarded an honorary
degree of Doctor of Laws from her alma mater, the University of
SHOENHAIR, Sheri. Insane Asylums of the 18th and 19th Centuries: Creator or Cure of Insanity? MWSC Psychology Department
The insane asylums of the 1700 and 1800's went through
many changes. Asylums were first built to replace family and
community care of the mentally ill. With growing urbanization
and population growth, asylums became overcrowded. Patients were
warehoused and little, if any, therapy or curative approaches
for mental illness was taken. The conditions of the asylums and
treatment of the patients was appalling. Asylums were more likely
to create rather than cure mental illness. In the early to mid-1800's
moral therapy was employed and gradually asylum conditions improved.
ZERR, William. The History of Intelligence Test. MWSC Psychology Department.
There is a long history with societies interest in the differences of humans intelligence. Galton really started the interest in measuring the differences of humans. Soon after Galton, society had a demanded for finding ways to separate peoples intellectual ability. The first test were designed for individual test. Binet started the first successful way to measure a childs intelligence with the Binet-Simon Scale. This test was later redesign by Terman's Stanford-Binet Test. The need for distinguishing adults intelligence was satisfied with the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale. Later society needed a test to measure intelligence of a large group of people. Group test were started with the Army Alfa.
ARRASMITH, Dennis. Creating the Genetic Fingerprint of Life. MWSC Biology Department.
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to amplify
DNA in two species of Oxytropis. PCR was chosen as a method for
looking at the plants at a molecular level because comparing the
two plants by morphology would not yield a distinct comparison.
PCR takes small amounts of DNA fragments and amplifies them into
huge amounts of double stranded DNA with the help of the thermophilic
enzyme Taq polymerase. Originally these plants were chosen for
comparison purposes but DNA could only be isolated from one plant.
A genetic fingerprint was then created using PCR to amplify the
plant DNA and gel electrophoresis to separate the DNA fragments
by size. A photograph was then taken of the gel, this pattern
of the DNA banding represent a genetic fingerprint. Genetic fingerprints
from differing plants of the same genus can now be compared to
this existing DNA fingerprint.
BANKS, Shawn. A Preliminary Study to Observe Vertical Migration of Phantom Midges (Chaoboridae). MWSC Biology Department.
It is known that certain species of midges, known
as phantom midges (Family: Chaoboridae) engage in a phenomenon
known as vertical migration. Vertical migration is a uniformed
movement from the lower benthic regions of a pond or reservoir
to the surface layer. This upward migration takes place at night
where light intensity is low and predation on midges by predators
decreases because of low visibility. This study was designed
to test this natural phenomenon as it occurs in two ponds on
the campus of Missouri Western State College. Sample times were
divided into six hour intervals giving a night, day, dusk, and
dawn sample time. Both of the ponds sampled were approximately
the same size; however, one of the ponds was less than one year
old whereas the other pond was significantly older than one year
old. My hypothesis was that larger numbers of midges would be
gathered at night samples compared to that of day samples. It
was also my belief that the newer of the two ponds would contain
significantly less midges than the older pond primarily because
there had not been a significant length of time for the establishment
of substantial midge populations in the newer pond. A total
count of 1,628 midges from the older pond compared to 28 midges
from the newer pond suggests that the newer pond has not yet
obtained a thriving population. Mean numbers from the older
pond of 45.25 midges at day sampling, 54.67 at dusk, 179.75 at
night, and 66 midges at dawn were gathered and appears to suggest
that vertical migration does indeed occur.
BATEMEN, Carlos. Effects of DAPI on DNA Supercoiling. MWSC Biology Department.
Examined were the effects of 4',6-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole
(DAPI) on pUC 18 plasmid DNA isolated from transformed Escherichia
coli. It is known that naturally occurring DNA has negative
supercoils, and that these can be relaxed by Ethidium Bromide
(EtBr). EtBr is commonly used with electrophoresis gels to fluoresce
the DNA inside of those gels after it has migrated. DAPI fluoresces
DNA in electophoresis gels as well. EtBr is also used to treat
DNA prior to running gels in experiments concerning DNA supercoiling,
because of its ability to introduce positive supercoils in DNA.
EtBr accomplishes both because of its affinity for binding the
minor groove of DNA. This affinity for binding DNA also makes
EtBr a carcinogen. DAPI's carcinogenic effects are not understood,
and neither are its effects on DNA supercoiling. It was the scope
of this research to determine DAPI's effects on DNA supercoiling,
of which there were none.
DILLMAN, Casey. Genetic Diversity in Jack-in-the-Pulpit populations. MWSC Biology Department
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (a registered trademark
of Hoffman La Roche, Inc.), or PCR, is a method for amplifying
DNA sequences outside of the cell. Its uses are almost limitless
in many fields of Biology. One of the many uses is creating genetic
fingerprints of specific species of plants. Another use for this
technology is to test for Genetic Diversity among a population.
The current project is studying a flowering orchid, Jack-in-the-Pulpit,
found in northwest Missouri. Several of the plants were collected
and the DNA isolated through a series of simple procedures. The
PCR reactions used a series of different primers. Primers were
selected for use in the production of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic
DNA (RAPD) fragments. The results of the reactions were then
analyzed on either polyacrylamide or agarose gels. Several interesting
questions can be asked about this orchid. One of the questions
is how closely related are the individuals that are growing in
large groups? Have they all come from the same plants or did
they originate from different parents? Another question is, are
the orchids that are found growing solitarily or in small groups
related to the larger groups or are they quite a bit different?
These are questions that can be addressed using RAPD PCR analysis.
The results of the project showed that Jack-in-the-Pulpit population
possess many similarities in Genetic fingerprints. One conclusion
that has been drawn from the experiments is that there are Genetic
differences in the Jack-in-the-Pulpit populations.
DILLMAN, Casey. Comparison of Isoenzymes in White Snake Root. MWSC Biology Department
Isoenzymes are enzymes that are present in different
molecular forms in plants. Due to different molecular forms the
charges of these molecules can change from a net (+) charge to
a net (-) charge. Different parts of plants can and often do
possess these isoenzymes. Peroxidase isoenzymes are the ones
examined in this study. The roots, leaves, and flowers are the
three areas of the plant that were focused on for this project.
In addition to the three areas studied, the isoenzymes were
also looked at in different pH solutions. These solutions ranged
in pH from 5.7 to 9.8. Results were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis.
This experiment showed that there were differences in the migration
of the isoenzymes in the different pH solutions. If the study
were to be continued more plants would be added, along with more
DILLMAN, Casey. Parasite survey of Bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana MWSC Biology Department
Parasites are a way of life for almost every living
organism. Many surveys for parasites are done to see what types
of parasites are infecting what hosts. In this survey bullfrogs
were collected from the pond in the Biology study area, and from
the creek that runs through the MWSC campus. Once the frogs were
collected they were necropsied and looked at for levels of parasitization.
Several key areas were looked at for infection. These areas
included the mouth, lungs, digestive tract, bladder, and the body
cavity. Once all the frogs are necropsied a statistical analysis
will be done to tell the distribution of parasites found on MWSC
campus in the two specific areas.
DOOGS, Holly J. Nursing Students Attitudes Toward the Elderly. MWSC Nursing Department.
The purpose of this study was to assess nursing students'
change in attitude toward the elderly as a result of academic
and clinical experiences in the nursing program. This quasi-experimental
study used Kogan's Attitude Toward Old People Scale to measure
the attitudes of a group of students beginning the program and
another group of students completing the program. The research
hypothesis, which states graduating students would express more
positive attitudes toward the elderly, was not supported. There
was no significant difference in attitudes based on prior experience.
However, a significant difference was found between the different
age groups. Subjects between the ages of 31 to 35 were found to
have the most positive attitude toward the elderly. Additionally,
a significant difference in attitude was found between male and
EDWARDS, Rusty. The Speed of Learning MWSC Psychology Department
Learning has been researched for years by numerous
people. In this experiment the speed at which information is processed
is looked at. Subjects will be shown a selected clip from a black
and white film. The three and a half min. clip will be shown at
regular or double speed, with no sound, to approximately 150 undergraduate
students. The students will then be given a memory test to see
how much of the film was retained. After the data collection the
results will be found using an independent T-test to see if learning
is affected by the rate of presentation.
FISHER, Brad. Relative Abundance of Invertebrates in Stream and Pond Environments. MWSC Biology Department.
Two separate three day studies were conducted in
Otoe Creek and three ponds on campus, in order to determine the
relative abundance of invertebrates in the stream vs. a pond environment.
12 altered yellowjacket traps were baited and placed in the creek
and two traps were placed in each pond. The cold temperatures
seemed to have a great deal of affect on the outcomes. Results
were analyzed and Otoe Creek was found to be nearly devoid of
invertebrates while the pond data is awaiting complete analyzation.
GRAY, Todd. The Study of the Diversity and Population of Insects in Both Short and Tall Grass Fields. MWSC Biology Department
Sweep netting was used to study the diversity and
population of insects in a short and tall grass field in North
East Missouri. A total of twelve, seven step sweeps were conducted.
The sweeps were divided between the tall and short grass fields.
After sweeping, the insects were put in a bag containing ethyl
acetate (killing agent). Then the insects were divided into orders
and a statistical analysis was calculated. The analysis compared
differences in diversity, population, and my sweeps compared to
Leslie Wood's. It is presumed that greater diversity and populations
of insects will be greater in the tall grass field because of
more vegetation and surface area.
HENLON, Sophia L. The Effects of Population Density on the Reproduction of the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster. MWSC Biology Department
Population densities often affect reproductive output
of insects. The purpose of this study is to determine if crowding
affects the number of eggs laid by the female fruit flies (Drosophila
melanogaster). Population cages will be used to maintain a range
of population densities of fruit flies. The number of eggs
deposited per female will be determined for each density treatment.
The chambers containing more dense populations of flies are
expected to show the effect of crowding (decreased number of
eggs per female fly). Additionally, the relationship between
the number of eggs deposited in the medium under different density
treatments and the survivorship of larvae that hatches from these
eggs will be examined.
HERPEL, Russell. Phototriggering of Methane Sulfonate: Synthesis and Photolysis of 2-Mesyl-4'-Methoxyacetophenone. MWSC Chemistry Department.
Phototriggering is the process that occurs when an
active substrate is released in the presence of light. The photo-chemistry
of tosyl esters, benzyl phosphate esters, and -keto phosphate
groups are just a few examples that have been studied with respect
to their biological significance. On the other hand, sulfonates
have been overlooked as photochemical nucleofuges due to their
inability to absorb light. In this research with phototriggering,
2-mesyl-4'-methoxy acetophenone is synthesized through several
nucleophilic substitution reactions. Once 2-mesyl-4'-methoxy acetophenone
is produced, it is then subjected to photolysis in the presence
of methanol. After the photorelease, 4'-methoxyacetophenone and
4'-methoxyphenylacetate are yielded as the major photoproducts.
Finally, these products can be analyzed with respect to their
purity, percentage yield, and mechanism.
HOPPE, David A. Zonation of Eggs of the Rat Tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, Within the Fecal Pellet of the Host, Rattus spp.. MWSC Biology Department.
The life cycle of Hymenolepis diminuta , the rat
tapeworm, requires an intermediate host in which the infective
cysticercoid larval form developes. The survival of the parasite
hinges on the intermediate host's exposure to viable eggs within
the fecal pellet. Specific zonation of eggs of the rat tapeworm
H. diminuta, within the rat fecal pellet has yet to be determined.
The present study seeks to determine specific patterns of zonation
within the rat fecal pellet . It is hypothesized that the greatest
number of eggs would be peripherally located, enhancing consumption
of the eggs by the intermediate host. Fecal pellets were randomly
gathered from rats infected with H. diminuta , and fixed in M.I.F.
(MERTHIOLATE-IODINE-FORMALIN) solution to preserve the pellet
and stain the eggs. Fecal pellets were then subjected to a standard
dehydration series using ethyl alcohol and a clearing sequence
using xylene. Once dehydrated and cleared, the fecal pellets
were paraffin infiltrated using 56o C. paraplast. After infiltration,
the fecal pellets were embedded in a paraffin block and transverse
pellet sections of approximately 25 micrometers were obtained
using a rotary microtome. These sections will be photographed
under low power (40x) looking for obvious patterns of zonation.
This study will report the preliminary results of attempts to
develop a standard technique for determining tapeworm egg zonation
within a rat fecal pellet.
KARNS, Jason. Protease inhibition MWSC Biology Department
Protease inhibition is exhibited by using a technique
called peptide mapping. Peptide mapping is used to measure proteins
at the level of their primary amino acid sequences. Enzymes called
proteases,cleave proteins at specific sites into smaller peptide
fragments. Chymotrypsin is one such protease that cuts peptide
bonds that are made of tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine.
The fragments generated from the result of chymotrypsin, can be
resolved in a gel electrophoresis experiment. Human albumin, a
soluble protein that occurs in blood plasma or serum, is used
to demonstrate the inhibition effects of chymotrypsin. This experiment
is designed to inhibit the effects of chymotrypsin by using various
temperatures and pH levels on the protease. Protease inhibition
can be applied to such viruses as HIV, where protease acts at
each step of the assembly line process that takes primitive proteins
and breaks them up to build infectious viral particles. The particles
that are assembles without protease are defective and will not
PAGE, Stefanie. Procrastination Across Age, Gender, and Population. MWSC Psychology Department
This study will compare and contrast procrastination levels across
gender and age. Procrastination differences will also be measured
between rural and larger city students. It is expected that
the younger students and males will be more likely to procrastinate
compared to older students and females acording to past studies.
PUGH, Kevin. Survival rates of Chaetogastrinae MWSC Biology Department
A survival study of Chaetogastrinae after removal
from the aquatic snail host. Aquatic snails from freshwater habitats
were collected to obtain the oligochaetaworms, of the subfamily
Chaetogastrinae, which live inside the shell of the snail. The
sample groups were collected from small, shallow ponds with a
large algal population. The worms were removed from the host,
then both host and worm were placed in the same dish to test the
survival rate of the worms. A pair of snails and five worms were
placed in each dish. A total of twenty separate pairs were studied.
The effect of removal from the host was death for many of the
worms, but a small percentage of worms were able to return to
SIPES, Heather. Maria Montessori. MWSC Psychology Department
Maria Montessori is ranked among the top educators
of today. She spent a lifetime trying to improve the education
among children. During her study, she discovered that every child
has a desire to learn. A child's desire to learn gave Montessori
her course of study. Through a long study, Montessori developed
a new method of teaching concepts. These concepts were to release
the child of formal education and bring education a sense of joy
STEELE, Matthew. Determine the effects of the mutualistic relationship between Lumbricus terrestris and the augmentation of basica rapa in accordance to the totality of lumbricus per seed. MWSC Biology Department.
The mutualistic effect between Lumbricus terrestris
and basic rapa is the main concern for this project. Forty-eight
containers were used holding the basica rapa (wild type) plant
in each. This forty-eight was divided up into quarters. Twelve
being the control group while the other thirty-six being the variable
group. These thirty-six plants contained a diversity of worms
in each container. They were labeled according to the density
per container. Once germination began, data was obtained weekly
by counting petals of each plant to determine whether or not there
was a significant difference of growth in the density ratio of
worms to plant. After several weeks of evaluation, performing
a mean, and figuring a t-test, the best suitable arrangement of
earthworms to plant is the one Lumbricus terrestris to the one
basica rapa. This research was began with a mentality that the
more earthworms there are the better the growth will be. This
experiment proves that this is not the case.
WAGNER, Daniel J. A preliminary comparison of intestinal parasite load and diversity of the ringtail, Bassariscus astutus (Carnivora: Procyonidae), collected from Chaparral and Sonoran Desert habitats in Arizona. MWSC Biology Department
Given the relatively high host and habitat specificity
of certain parasites, it can be predicted that ringtails, Bassariscus
astutus, taken from Chaparral habitat will demonstrate a greater
parasite diversity and level of parasitism than ringtails taken
from Sonoran Desert habitat. The purpose of this study is to
survey the parasite load and diversity of the small intestine
and colon of ringtails. This study addresses the hypotheses that
1) there is no difference in parasite diversity among ringtails
from Chaparral habitat compared to ringtails from Sonoran Desert
habitat, and 2) there is no difference in the magnitude of parasite
load between ringtails from Chaparral habitat and ringtails from
Sonoran Desert habitat. Twelve ringtails collected from Arizona
Chaparral habitats were compared with twelve ringtails collected
from Arizona Sonoran habitats for parasite load and diversity
differences. The small intestine and colon were bluntly dissected,
measured, and the small intestine divided into four equal zones.
Parasites found in the small intestine were labeled according
to the zone they were found in and placed in an acetic acid-formalin-alcohol
mixture (AFA). Parasites found in the colon were also labeled
and placed in AFA. Food boluses were removed and stored for a
future dietary habits study. Parasites collected were identified
to Phylum and Genus when possible. Preliminary results indicate
that parasite load and diversity is higher in Sonoran Desert habitats
WALKER, Ryan. Parasitism of Sarcophaga bullata (blow fly) larvae by Nasonia[Mormoniella] vitripennis (jewel wasp): A study of the effects of overpopulation within the host larvae. MWSC Biology Department
Sarcophaga bullata is the primary host of Nasonia
vitripennis. This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis
that a decline in the output of jewel wasp progeny per larvae
occurs because of overpopulation of the blow fly larvae. Vials
containing the host and parasite were set up holding the jewel
wasp number constant while varying the larvae number. Data will
be derived by counting the offspring produced from each vial and
statistical analysis will be performed. The mean number of progeny
per larvae calculated from the data will show a decline in the
output of larvae in vials with less larvae due to overpopulation.
WEST, Raquel. The Growth Rate of Manduca Sexta on differentiated mediums MWSC Biology Department
The experiment conducted contrasted the growth rate
of the Tobacco Hornworm (Manduca Sexta) on two different types
of growth medium. The mediums that were used were Dry Tobacco
Hornworm medium and Regular Fruitfly medium. Data was gathered
up until pupation which lasted a period of fifteen days. The
hornworms were weighed and measured on every other day, and light
and temperature were kept constant being critical factors. At
the conclusion of the experiment it was noted that the hornworms
placed on the dry tobacco hormworm medium outweighed and outgrew
those of the fruit-fly medium by almost 65%.
WEST, Raquel. Restriction Mapping of Plasmid 256 Genome MWSC Biology Department
In this experiment several restriction endonucleases
will be used to generate different sized fragments of the p256
genome. EcoR1, BamH1 and Pst1 are the endonucleases being used
interchangeably throughout the experiment. Agarose gel electrophoresis
will allow the measurements of these fragments. This information
will then be incorporated into a restriction map of the Plasmid
WOOD, Leslie. Plankton Studies Comparing Population And Diversity Found In A Pond Treated With Copper Sulfate And Another That Is Not.MWSC Biology Department
The study conducted compared the diversity and population of the plankton found in a pond that was treated with copper sulfate and another pond that was not treated. Plankton was collected midday each of the four days. Two spots located at approximately the same location from each pond were chosen and two sweeps at each point were taken on those days. The probable results would be that the pond which had been treated with copper sulfate would have less diversity and population of plankton than the pond that had not been treated.
BIGHAM, Lori. Benjamin Rush. MWSC Psychology Department
This paper discusses Benjamin Rush and his wide span
of interests. Rush was an American Physician, signer of the Declaration
of Independence, and a controversial figure in both medicine and
politics. He is often called the "Hippocrates of Pennsylvania"
and the "Father of American Psychiatry" due to his contributions
in the fields of medicine and in psychiatry. His medical methods
were controversial as he relied on blood letting, purging, and
other debilitating therapeutic measures. In psychiatry he held
that insanity often proceeded from physical causes and he advocated
for better treatment of the mentally ill.
BLIZZARD, Pamela. The Witch Hunts of the 14th-17th Centuries. Mental Illness as an Explanation. MWSC Psychology Department.
The witch hunts of the 14th-17th centuries is a topic
that has interested scholars from various degrees of study. There
exists many facts which are not debatable. However, there are
questions that remain to be answered. Questions such as why did
the witch hunts begin and end when they did? Assuming that witches
were persecuted as an object of scapegoating, why witches and
not more traditional scapegoats? And last, why were women mainly
targeted as witches and persecuted as such? The answers to these
questions and possible explanations for the witch hunts in general
will be offered in this paper from a mental illness explanation.
Specifically, this paper will look at mental illness from two
views. One, that the witches who were persecuted were treated
that way through no fault of their own because they were not properly
diagnosed as mentally ill. And two, the persecutors themselves
were mentally deformed, that society itself was sick. These two
views will be explored in depth in this paper with the intention
of offering viable explanations to the questions that remain concerning
the witch hunts.
EDWARDS, Rusty. Intelligence, the experimenters' bias. MWSC Psychology Department.
Intelligence has always been a very debated issue
in psychology. This paper examines the history of intelligence
testing by looking at key figures in the development of the field.
Starting with the Greek philosopher and working to the modern
day theories, looking at how the scientists measured intelligence
and the biases that come from these measurements.
HOPPE, Heather, Leta Hollingworth: On the Development of Gifted Children and Women. MWSC Psychology Department.
Leta Stetter Hollingworth was concerned with the
unique adjustment problems that gifted children experience. In
her writings we find insights into the nature of these problems,
their impact at different levels of giftedness, and solutions
that could be implemented today. She instituted the first course
in the nature and needs of the gifted, wrote the first major textbook
in the field, and conducted over 30 original studies of gifted
children. In addition, she single-handedly launched a battle
to refute the pervasive beliefs of her time that females were
innately inferior in intelligence to males. Through her own scholarship
and courage, Hollingworth won the battle and provided the foundation
upon which we can build to understand and nurture giftedness in
LOCK, Cleota. Leta Stetter Hollingworth- Battling Boundaries. MWSC Psychology Department
This paper will look at the psychological studies
and accomplishments of Leta Stetter Hollingworth. Considering
the spirit of the time period I would like to give an overview
of one of the pioneering women in the field of psychology. Leta
Stetter Hollingworth examined the issue of inequality of ability
in the sexes, and to study the special education problems of the
slow and exceptional child. Hollingworth was fighting the discriminating
issues of IQ testing, and predjudice against women's roles. This
paper should reveal the lasting impact from her findings, and
cover a noteworthy women's influence in the area of psychology.
PAGE, Stefanie. The Evolution of Art Therapy. MWSC Psychology Department.
This is an exploratory paper of the roots and history
of art therapy. I will discuss the past uses of art therapy and
how it applies to present day counseling and treatment. I will
show the advantages and disadvantages of this therapy on children,
PHILLIPPE, Patricia. Freud's Vienna MWSC Psychology Department
It is generally accepted that the zeitgeist of Vienna
during Freud's life had a defining impact on the development of
his psychoanalysis. Vienna is usually perceived as having been
a very repressed society with strong anti-Semitic elements. But
evidence exists that it's people were less sexually inhibited
than believed and that anti-Semitic prejudice, while definitely
present, was less pervasive than usually thought. In addition,
Freud's family was probably not as poor as he often contended
but was most likely upper middle class.
SMITH, Elaine. MAX WERTHEIMER: The Pioneer of Gestalt Psychology. MWSC Psychology Department
Though not a prolific writer or fluent lecturer,
Max Wertheimer is responsible for providing the first presentation
of the Gestalt point of view and applying it to psychology. It
all began with his 1912 publication of his paper, "Perception
of Apparent Movement" (Popplestone & McPherson, 1994).
His exploration of this phenomenon was not original with him,
but it was his new explanation that made his work significant
(Kohler, 1940). He challenged the traditional, structuralist
approach to describing visual illusions and mental functions and
began the quest to explain such phenomenon as they naturally occurred.
In explaining perceptual phenomenon with a Gestalt approach,
Wertheimer and his subsequent followers (Kohler and Lewin) argued
that to reduce a perception down into separate elements, causes
the loss of the essence of the perception, and so, the perception
itself. Gestalt meaning whole, Wertheimer launched a new, dynamic
alternative to Wilhelm Wundt's barren, sterile, "brass interments
"psychology (Ash, 1995).
THUMAN, Stacey. Resorting to sorting: The misuse of Intelligence Testing. MWSC Psychology Department.
The dream of achieving objective, and therefore,
presumably, fair, systems for evaluating and classifying people
according to ability rather than accident of birth or social advantage
has made testing an enormous entity in America. In historical
context, the foundations of intelligence testing are explored
to reveal the misuse and abuse of a seemingly harmless but very
practical tool: the IQ test. While implications of IQ testing
are broad, this paper examines specific implications in the sorting
mechanism intelligence testing appears to have taken on.
WAGNER, Glenn, Descartes' Influence on Psychology Due to Position on Mind/Body Issue. MWSC Psychology Department.
The project will include a biography of the philosopher,
Rene Descartes. In addition, a description of his view on the
Mind/Body issue. Other important individuals that influenced
Descartes outlook will be discussed. The project will conclude
with a summary of how Descartes position affected vital individuals
in Psychology and Psychology as a whole.