|TITLE:||THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN YOUTH SPORT SPECIALIZATION AND PERCEIVED MOTIVATIONAL CLIMATE ON MOTIVATIONS FOR YOUTH SPORT PARTICIPATION.|
|PRINCIPLE INVESTIGATOR:||RUSSELL, WILLIAM|
|OTHER INVESTIGATORS:||DR. MATT SYMONDSRNDEPT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICESRNNORTHWEST MISSOURI STATE UNIVERSITY|
File Created: March 5, 2013|
Department Chair Action Date: April 2, 2013
Current Status: Final Status Report Received
|Confidentiality||Data are not linked to individuals|
STATEMENT OF PURPOSEEarly specialization, or year-round training and competing in one sport at the elimination of other activities (e.g. Wiersma, 2000) is a growing youth sport trend (Baker, 2003). As more youth participate in sports, these settings are becoming more structured and adult organized (Ewing & Seefedlt, 1996), and youth are participating at earlier ages (Callendar, 2010). Despite low odds that early specialization makes it more likely one will eventually obtain a college scholarship in that sport or play professionally, adults continue to pressure youth to specialize in one sport (Landers, Carson, & Tjeerdsma-Blankenship, 2010) and many youth are accused of lacking commitment for not specializing in one sport (Coakley, 2010). Various concerns exist regarding early sport specialization. “Specializers” as they have been referred to in the literature (e.g. Strachan, Cote, & Deakin, 2009) may be at greater risk for physical, psychological, and developmental issues (Hecimovich, 2004) including dropout, burnout (Baker, 2003; Coakley, 2009; Gould, 2010; Gould, Tuffey, Udry, & Loehr, 1996; Strachan et al., 2009), overuse injuries (Kaleth & Mikesky, 2010), social isolation (Coakley, 2010; Gould, 2010), and dropout (AAP, 2000; Butcher, Lindner, & Johns, 2002; Joesaar & Hein, 2011; Strachan et al., 2009; Wall & Cote, 2007). Of particular interest is how youth sport involvement influences motivation to be physically active in adolescence and early adulthood. Few studies have explored long-term physical, social, and psychological effects of organized sport involvement during childhood and adolescence. Thus, research is needed to understand the role of youth sport in adopting a physically active lifestyle in young adulthood. Recent research (Russell in review; Russell and Limle, 2013) has found that while physical activity patterns and enjoyment as young adults were not related to whether they specialized in one youth sport or sampled multiple sports, “specializers” were less likely to be active participants in organized sports as young adults. Motivational Considerations Deci and Ryan’s Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; 1991) asserts that competence, autonomy, and relatedness are basic human needs, and the extent to which they are satisfied determines one’s intrinsic motivation for an activity. Social factors that facilitate one’s perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness have a positive influence on one’s motivation, whereas events that negatively influence perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness may lessen it (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 1991; Vallerand & Losier, 1999). Deci and Ryan (1985) posited that a motivational continuum is formed where various types of extrinsically regulated behaviors can be identified. Four types of extrinsic motivation are proposed: external, introjected, identified, and integrated regulations. These reflect behaviors associated with external pressures (external), internal pressures to avoid guilt (introjected), and self-determined motivation associated with personal goals (identified). Integrated regulation reflects behaviors “fully assimilated to the self, which means they have been evaluated and brought into congruence with one’s other values and needs” (Ryan & Deci, 2000, p.73). Self-determination and autonomy increase as one goes from external to integrated regulation. Intrinsic motivation, which reflects enjoyment, interest, and personal satisfaction, is the clearest form of autonomy and demonstrates true self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Research on youth sport motivation is limited, however evidence indicates specialized youth sport settings may undermine intrinsic motivation and enjoyment (Deci & Olsen, 1989; Law, Cote, & Ericsson, 2007; Strachan et al., 2009; Wall & Cote, 2007). Athletes participating in sport for self-determined reasons are more likely to experience positive affect from their involvement, whereas athletes participating for less self-determined motives may be more likely to experience more negative affect (Vallerand & Losier, 1999). Many sport factors are related to intrinsic motivation (Vallerand & Rousseau, 2001) such as playing for a democratic coach (versus a controlling coach), participating in settings focused on skill development (versus a competitive, “win-at-all-costs” setting), and perceiving control over one’s participation conditions (versus participation conditions controlled entirely by adults; Weinberg & Gould, 2011). Therefore, potential features of many specialized sport settings (e.g. less perceived control over participation) may diminish self-determination, thus decreasing intrinsic motivation, especially over time. In fact, the strongest predictors of negative personal development within youth sports are an ego climate and other-referenced competency (MacDonald, Cote, Eys, & Deakin, 2011) which can be more salient within specialized sport settings. While little research on youth sport specialization exists (Baker, Cobley, & Fraser-Thomas, 2009; Gould, 2010), at present, there is insufficient evidence to resolve the issue in favor of either a specialization or diversification approach (Baker et al., 2009). Unfortunately, most conclusions about benefits or detriments of specialization have been based on general youth sport literature regarding competition and children or survey data from coaches and administrators, and recommendations have called for direct comparisons of children who specialize versus those who play multiple sports (Baker et al., 2009; Carson, Landers, & Tjeerdsma-Blankenship, 2010). Recent research (Russell, in review) has found that specializers were higher on introjected regulation and intrinsic motivation to know (as assessed by the Sport Motivation Scale-28) compared to non-specializers. In discussing this seemingly contradictory finding, it was noted that specializers’ higher intrinsic motivation could have indicated that specialized sport settings may not be more detrimental per se, but only when an athlete’s self-determination is compromised. Specifically, specializers’ higher intrinsic motivation to know (IM-know) could have been due to more task-involved climates created by a combination of increased task-involving peer-, parent, or coach climates. Therefore, while these individuals specialized in a single youth sport, the motivational climate within that sport setting may have been sufficiently constructive (i.e. task-involved) so as to result in higher IM-know compared to non-specializers. Future research is necessary to examine what specific youth sport motivational climates determine whether early specialization has negative outcomes. Statement of Purpose The purpose of this study will be to examine how former youth sport athletes’ sport motivation is related to whether they specialized in one sport as a youth athlete and their retrospective recall of the perceived motivational climate in their youth sport setting. Based on research indicating early youth specialization may weaken intrinsic motivation (e.g. Boyd & Yin, 1996; Gould 2010; Law et al., 2007), and that participation motivations may be transformed from intrinsic into more extrinsic when youth specialize (Fraser-Thomas & Cote, 2006), it is hypothesized that young adults that specialized in one youth sport (“specializers”) and who report more ego-involving team climates will report lower intrinsic motivation and higher extrinsic motivation for their youth sport participation compared to young adults who participated in multiple youth sports (“non-specializers”) and perceive more task-involving youth sport climates.
STATEMENT OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGYParticipants for this project will be a sample of college students (ages 18-22) who participated in organized youth team sports prior to entering high school. A targeted sample of 200 participants will be the goal, with equal approximate numbers of male and female participants included within the overall sample. Upon approval from institutional review boards, participants will be administered a survey packet that includes a series of questions based on their retrospective recall of their youth sport experience. Survey questions will include questions pertaining to general perceptions of their youth sport experience, as well as questions about their enjoyment of physical activity and their motivations for practicing their sport as a youth. Surveys will also include a measure of sport motivation (The Sport Motivation Scale-28, SMS-28, Pelletier et al., 1995). This scale assesses people's motivation for engaging in sports activities. It assesses 7 types of motivation: intrinsic motivation toward knowledge, accomplishment and stimulation, as well as external, introjected and identified regulations, and amotivation. It contains 28 items (4 items for each of the 7 sub-scales) assessed on a 7-point scale. Pelletier et al. (1995) reported adequate internal consistency, with alpha scores on six of the seven subscales ranging from .74 to .80, with the internal consistency of the identification subscale slightly lower (.63). Finally, the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2; Newton et al., 2000) will be administered to participants to determine their perceptions of the motivational climate created on their youth sport teams. The questionnaire is hierarchically structured to measure the degree to which the participants perceive the motivational climate to be task-involving (e.g., “On this team, each player feels as if he/she is an important team member”) or ego-involving (e.g., “On this team, players are afraid to make mistakes”). These two higher order scales of the survey instrument are composed of lower order subscales that further exemplify aspects of either the task-involving climate (i.e., Important Role on the Team, Cooperation and Helping Others, and Recognizing Effort/Improvement) or ego-involving climate (i.e., Punishment for Mistakes, Unequal Recognition based on Ability, and Intra-team Rivalry). When completing the questionnaire, participants will be to reflect upon how it felt to play on their team throughout the season and based on this reflection indicate how they typically viewed the climate created as they responded to each item on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree). The validity and reliability of PMCSQ-2 has been established in previous work (Newton et al., 2000). For the purposes of this study, only the higher order scales of task-involved motivational climate and ego-involved motivational will be used.
ANTICIPATED RISKS AND BENEFITSThere are no anticipated risks since this study involves survey research. Therefore, risks to participants are deemed minimal in nature. Possible benefits of this study include greater insight into possible long-term impacts of youth sport specialization have on later enjoyment or, participation, and motivations in sport and general physical activity. In addition, this study may improve insights into whether task- or ego-involving motivational climates in youth sport settings interact with type of youth sport setting (specialized / nonspecialized) to influence motivations (intrinsic or extrinsic) for participation in youth sports.
SUBJECT SELECTIONA stratified sample of 200 college students who participated in organized youth teams sports will be surveyed for this project, with equal numbers (n=100) coming from males and females.
CONFIDENTIALITYSurvey packets will be number-coded and will not include participants’ names thus will be anonymous. In addition, surveys will be directly administered by Dr. Russell and his associate.
PRIMARY SUPPORTING DOCUMENTClick for Word Document
Extension Request on 08-07-2013We need an extension as data being collected by Dr. Matt Symonds (Northwest Missouri State Univ) is not yet complete. We need about 20 more completed surveys from Northwest and will have to wait until the fall semester begins to secure them.
Final Report on 12-06-2013As more youth participate in organized sports, the trend of early youth sport participation has increased in recent years (Baker, 2003; Gould, 2010). Concerns about early sport specialization include injury, competitive anxiety, social isolation, burnout, and dropout (Wall & Côté, 2007). Since early sport specialization may weaken intrinsic participation motivations, athletes’ perceptions of motivational climate within their sport might influence this relationship. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how former youth sport athletes’ sport motivation was related to whether they specialized in a single sport as a youth athlete and their retrospective recall of motivational climate within their youth sport. A sample of 226 undergraduates (M age =19.55, SD =1.27) was surveyed on retrospective perceptions of their youth sport experience. Surveys included questions about current exercise and sport participation, youth sport motivations (Sport Motivation Scale-28, Pelletier et al., 1995), and perceptions about their youth sport motivational climate (Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2; Newton, Duda, & Yin, 2000). Specializers did not differ from nonspecializers on exercise patterns as young adults. However, specializers were less likely to participate in organized sports as young adults compared to nonspecializers (X2 (2) =14.85, p<.001). Specializers and nonspecializers were not significantly different on their perceptions of motivational climate (PMCSQ-2) or sport motivations within youth sports (SMS-28), suggesting that neither of these factors were reasons for specializers’ lower sport participation as young adults. While current results indicate no differences in young adults’ recall of youth sport team motivational climate or sport motivation across specialization status, there is the need for direct examination of how youth sport specialization may influence such motivational constructs in current youth athletes.
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